Contributed by Marielle Grenade-Willis
Brandon Keim reveals elephants as a vital keystone species that not only consistently shape the African landscape with their trunks and tusks, but also with their feet. According to a study published in the African Journal of Ecology, elephant footprints create the perfect stagnant climates for macro-invertebrates, such as aquatic worms and beetles, to thrive. Macro-invertebrates are a key signal of a healthy ecosystem as their presence is the foundation for other species such as amphibians, fish, birds, and their predators to survive. Protecting elephants and ensuring that their keystone species capabilities continue to flourish are a key component of our litigation related work at Friends of Animals.